A Plea for Watchfulness (2 John 7-11)

7 For many deceivers have gone out into the world, those who do not confess the coming of Jesus Christ in the flesh. Such a one is the deceiver and the antichrist. 8 Watch yourselves, so that you may not lose what we have worked for, but may win a full reward. 9 Everyone who goes on ahead and does not abide in the teaching of Christ, does not have God. Whoever abides in the teaching has both the Father and the Son. 10 If anyone comes to you and does not bring this teaching, do not receive him into your house or give him any greeting, 11 for whoever greets him takes part in his wicked works.

A Great Deception (v.7)

John warns the church here of deceivers who are in the world. It is not necessary that we see these deceivers as coming from the church (i.e. Apostates), but rather that they are actively going about their task of deceiving. They are devoted ministers of their ideologies.

He identifies who these deceivers are by what they refuse to confess: “the coming of Jesus Christ in the flesh.” This is one confession which has at least three doctrinal facets. First, “the coming.” John does not say, “the birth” and certainly not “the creation.” “Coming” implicates an existence prior to arrival. Jesus came, meaning that He was somewhere before He arrived. This facet of the confession points towards the Deity of Jesus, to the eternal glory He shared with the Father and Spirit as co-participants in eternal and divine joy, being of the same substance and essence as they, separate in personhood but never in ontology.

Second, “Jesus Christ.” Cristos is the Greek translation of “Messiah.” John knew Jesus well enough to refer to Him as simply “Jesus,” and several times in the New Testament it is done. Yet here, in this confession, He specifies that Jesus is the Messiah. The Messiah as prophesied in the Old Testament Scriptures would fill two roles: He would save His people from their sins and deliver His people from their enemies. As Messiah/Christ, Jesus is thus Savior and Lord. By this means, we find two doctrines within one facet of the confession.

Third, “in the flesh.” By this John means simply that Jesus is a man, and deeply that Jesus is the union of God and man. This is a confession of the Incarnation and the hypostatic union. It is not the case (John would have us know) that Jesus merely appeared as though a man. He actually, truly, in every sense, took upon Himself manhood.

This confession therefore is that Jesus is divine, that Jesus is Messiah, that Jesus is man. The deceivers are those who have denied such things. By including room for three doctrines yet calling it one confession, John broadens the scope of who this description can apply to. For one needs only to deny one of the three doctrines in order to qualify as a deceiver.

Systematically, it is possible to sum-up all three of these doctrines into one: Jesus is Messiah. For it is evident within prophecies, and especially within the New Testament, that the Messiah must be both God and man. For the sake of analysis, it is more helpful to separate the confession into three, yet most helpful into four, facets. “Jesus is God, Jesus is Savior, Jesus is Lord, Jesus is a man.” By separating “Messiah” into “Savior and Lord,” we may more clearly evaluate potential heresies – for if one affirms Jesus as Savior yet denies Him as Lord, he has actually denied Him as Messiah altogether.

The greatness of this deception is evident in the universal scope of it’s grasp. I submit that every damnable heresy involves one or a combination of the doctrinal facets in this confession – thus, an outright denial of the confession. Consider any ideology in light of this confession. If it denies one of the facets of this confession, it is a damnable heresy.

Mormonism denies the deity of Jesus by saying He and the Father are not of the same substance and essence. Islam denies the deity, saviorship, and lordship of Jesus. Roman Catholicism denies the saviorship of Jesus by robbing the Gospel of His sufficiency. These are just three examples to demonstrate that all damnable heresy involves one or a combination of the doctrinal facets in this confession.

It is improbable that John means to identify a singular figure called “Antichrist” here because he speaks in the present: “is the deceiver…antichrist.” Secondly, by “such a one,” he means to say something about every individual who denies the confession elaborated upon above. If you deny that Jesus is God, Savior, Lord, or man, then you are the deceiver and the antichrist. By this word, John does not bring mysticism to the table, but rather means to identify the seriousness of such heresy. If one teaches such heresy, it is as though he were pitting himself in solitary war with Christ and the truth itself.

Yet John certainly means to link such deceivers to the eschatological figure “antichrist,” and we should read this verse with the last things in mind. What we may say about it is: “Those evil forces and ideologies which will lead the world in a final rage against the Almighty are yet at work in this very day. The heresies which shall plague the day of Christ’s return are plaguing the world today. The kind of wicked men which shall work on the day of Christ’s return are working today. So beware, Christian, not to assume yourself alive in a safe time. You are living in the last days, the church age, in which damnable heresies and fowl, wicked men run amok.”

A Great Watchfulness (v.8a)

In light of such danger, John writes, “Watch yourselves.” This is a command, not a suggestion. He calls the church to the activity of watchfulness. This is what a commander would say to the sentries which he places atop the city walls: “Watch these fields.” You cannot fulfill this command by remaining idle or passive. Though John does not elaborate on how exactly this watchfulness should be conducted, a brief dip into systematics will lend an answer.

First, this requires one’s head to be buried in Scripture. Scripture is the measuring rod, the standard of all truth. If this first step is not completed, and completed initially, then the following two will be of no use. Second, this requires one’s eye to be keenly upon his life. A sharp look must be maintained upon the goings-on in the home and the church and the workplace. What information comes knocking at the mind, must be clearly visible. Third, this requires a willingness to sound the alarm if any discrepancies emerge between Scripture and one’s life. What good is a night watch who will not cry aloud once the enemy immerges? If we find any item of our lives unsynchronized with Scripture, we must be willing to toss it aside.

This Great Watchfulness is what John calls the church to. It is necessary because of the Great Deception promulgated by all manner of ghoulish, wicked deceivers. As to what great losses may be incurred if one does not obey John’s command, we shall now seek to understand.

A Great Loss (v.8-11)

It is clear that John believes false doctrine to be sin, for participation in it is referred to as taking part in wicked works. It is a transgression to believe and teach false doctrine. And of this sin John speaks most gravely. He explicitly and implicitly gives us three warnings regarding the plea for watchfulness.

First, by commanding all Christians to watch themselves, and without any qualifying language, John implies that all Christians therefore have a need to watch themselves against damnable heresy. Damnable heresy is dangerous because any one of us may believe it. Just as a foolish man says, “Grace abounds, therefore I sin!” So a foolish man says, “Grace abounds, therefore I flirt with damnable heresy!” John’s warning is clear: “O Church, you have not yet reached Zion!”

We may rejoice 9 times in the sufficiency of Christ and the sovereignty of grace – but in the 10th discourse, let us sober ourselves to consider the tragedy of false conversion. Let us on occasion take great pains to remember the great ravines which come up to each side of our pilgrim road, lest we fall headlong into one of them.

Because of Scriptural teaching regarding the eternal security of all who are united with Christ, clarification is in order regarding what exact dangers are at play in this type of situation. To these dangers John speaks most expertly.

Second, if your faith in Christ is genuine, then you will incur great dishonor upon yourself by flirting with the Great Deception. John says clearly that there is a reward awaiting Christians – but be warned: some may receive a full reward, while others not so full. Much is at stake here.

What shame you will experience on the last day, if you spend your days on earth flirting with the Great Deception! You never denied Jesus’ divinity – but you considered every now and then other ideas. You never denied that Jesus is Savior – but every other month or so, you wondered if there were other ways to God. If you only knew, beloved, how easily the righteous slip into a flirtatious relationship with heresy! They never abandon Christ, but they consider it at times. How greatly this stifles righteousness and ministry. Many a man has ran after Christ with great ambition, only to slow himself down to a trot, and eventually a stroll – because he was so busy reading the billboards of heresy that lined the pilgrim highway. Many a woman has cast great visions for glorifying Christ, only to have such visions clouded by ideas of heresy.

And on this point, I fear especially for the American church. We have at our fingertips the clearest translations of Scripture ever produced. We have more Bibles, more Bible scholars, more Bible study programs, and more time to study the Bible, than any other people in history. It is absolutely astounding what wealth God has blessed us with. Yet I submit to you that there are Christians who have a fourth of what Americans have, who have better theology. There are pastors imprisoned in North Korea, whom only have a few pages of the Gospel of Mark to hold under the light slipping into their jail cell. That’s all they have, yet by the Spirit of God and their diligence in study and prayer they have better theology than many churches in this country. There are congregations in India who pass around what few canonical books they have. They never worship on Sunday morning, or throughout the week, with a complete Bible in hand. Yet they know more about the glories of God and the sovereignty of His might than the lot of liberal seminary professors that evangelicalism has amassed.

And I can only wonder: what great shame shall we experience on that day? What great dishonor will we incur upon ourselves when we see how greatly devoted and studied these brothers and sisters have been in the faith, and yet the American church – with all its resources and Bibles – comes out the dumbest and estranged. I implore you all to make it the great ambition of your life to know the Lord Jesus Christ as Scripture has revealed Him to us, and to cling to that testimony – to bear in mind that one day your deeds shall be given in an account.

Third, if your faith in Christ is not genuine, then it will be manifest in your love of the Great Deception. O beloved, do not bat your eyes and wave your hands at the clear teaching of this text. John means for everyone who sits weekly in a pew to consider, if only even once, the possibility of leaving truth and proving yourself reprobate.

Dear pilgrim, I must remind you that you have not yet reached Zion. You have not yet crossed the gates of splendor. You still sleep in a tent by the wayside of your pilgrim road, with miles of trial stretched before you. There are pits and snares on either side of the road, and you still have time to plunge yourself into them and lodge yourself in wrath for eternity.

But don’t take my word for it – read the Divine Word. Take John to task for this: “Watch yourselves…. Everyone who goes on ahead and does not abide in the teaching of Christ, does not have God” (vv.8a, 9a). John commands every professing Christian to take watch over themselves. Then he warns every professing Christian that if they go ahead beyond the teaching of Christ – if they leave Biblical teaching for the Great Deception – they do not have God. And so I say, with love in my heart and driven by pastoral concern: if any of you today leave the teaching of Christ for the Great Deception, you do not have God. If any of you, my dearly beloved, decide one day that Jesus is not God, or not Savior, or not Lord, or not man – I declare to you, based upon the authority of Scripture, that you will be damned.

Do not play with fire. Do not play chase with lions. Do not stick your hand in the cottonmouth’s den. And certainly, if you value your life, do not leave yourself unguarded against the Great Deception. Watch your homes, men. Watch your congregation, elders. Church: watch your life and take great pains to ensure that the Great Deception is repelled by sound teaching and a love for Christ. Do not even assist in the ministry of one who has fallen sway to the Great Deception, for “if anyone comes to you and does not bring this teaching, do not receive him into your house or give him any greeting, for whoever greets him takes part in his wicked works” (vv.10-11).

Beloved, I would like to end on a positive and sincere note. I look forward to the last day, finding you all still following Christ. I greatly rejoice in the expectation of spending an eternity worship Christ with you – a people who stand firm in the Divinity of Jesus, the sufficiency of His redemptive work, the sovereignty of His authority, and the eternity of His humanity. Remember that although the one who goes on ahead and does not abide in the teaching of Christ, does not have God, the Gospel is that whoever abides in the teaching of Christ has both the Father and the Son (v.9).


Why Did Jesus Weep?

This is the first in a series I am calling, “Informal Expositions.” The need for this series has arisen based on my lack of proper typing tools. This summer the only electronic device I have is my phone – which makes typing long essays a strenuous activity. So I have opted for the following format. It may be lazy, or it may be genius, or perhaps simply hipster – I will leave the analysis in your capable hands.

If this is actually an unhelpful idea, let me know in the comment section below.

New eBook: “Stricken, Smitten, and Afflicted: A 38 Day Devotional”

In 2017, most of my writing energy was exerted on two projects. First, my blog The Bi-Daily. This site has served as a nice outlet for shorter theological thoughts I’ve wanted to share. Second, a work concerning the atonement. While an academic edition is still many months (probably another year) from even a peek into public light, I have now finished the devotional edition. This edition is fresh off the editing block – so expect considerable alterations and extensions in a second edition later this year.

The devotional is meant to provide quick, 2-3 minute reading periods. I’ve tried to divide a short treatise into bite-sized pieces.

Link: “Stricken, Smitten, and Afflicted


In Christ,

James W. Gunter


Disclaimer for Day 25:

“Classic Protestant theology holds that a man is justified by God in response to his faith. I would like to clarify that I affirm this Reformational doctrine of Sola Fide. The purpose of this work is to focus upon the cross, not the application of its work. Thus I will wait for a future work to elaborate on how precisely the inclusive nature of substitution is harmonious with Sola Fide.”

A Follow-Up on Leighton’s Rebuttal (1/2)

Leighton Flowers responded (source) to an article I wrote (source) in which I critiqued his commentary on Ephesians 1:4 and Romans 9:6b. I will follow-up on Leighton’s video in two ways: first, in written form with two articles, second, in video form on YouTube (I’ll share the video when it’s released).

Some of Leighton’s comments dealt with systematic theology and other texts I did not address in my original article. I will not be responding to those comments, unless I deem it helpful in discussing the particular meaning of Ephesians 1:4 and Romans 9:6a. So this article (and the next), to be clear, only deals with comments Leighton made specifically about Ephesians 1:4 and Romans 9:6a. I may comment further in the coming video.

The Cordial Exchange

I pointed-out that in verse 4, God chooses both the plan and the persons who will be included in this plan. This, I proposed, would be in stark contrast to Leighton’s position, where before creation God chose the plan but not the particular persons who would be included in this plan. My grammatical basis for this was mainly pointing to the direct object: “us” (the saints mentioned in v.1).

Leighton did not explicitly rebut my point that the object of God’s choosing is “us.” However, I believe there is a grammatical rebuttal strongly implied in what he said, and so I will respond to what I perceive his argument is. He refers to his position as “the corporate view of election.” The argument (if the reader has a better way of presenting it, please inform me in the comment section below) says that God chose a people (corporate) and when someone believes upon Jesus, he becomes part of that elect people and therefore elect himself. Christ is the elect one, redemption is the elect plan, faith is the elect means by which one is included in the elect church, and once you through faith are united to Christ, you become elect yourself.

Initial Thoughts

We first must decide whether “in Him” functions in an adjectival or adverbial sense. The immediate word order may suggest it is in reference to “us.” However, notice how Paul utilizes the phrase (or its equivalent) in the rest of this passage: adverbially. For example: “In Him we have redemption” (v.7), “He purposed in Him” (v.9), “In Him also we have obtained” (v.11). While several instances are obscure, the only clear cases point to an adverbial usage. (Below the reader will find an explanation for interpreting all such instances of “in Him” together.)

Second, assuming that “in Him” qualifies “chose,” we must decide in what sense it does. “In” is translated from the Greek preposition en which, in most cases, denotes a spacial or spherical relationship (Mounce, Basics of Biblical Greek, 60). Christ is a sphere in which God’s choosing took place – Christ is the context. (I mean this in a broad sense that could potentially include all uses of en. My use of “sphere” at the end of this article is more specific.)

Note that “in Him” is dative and the direct object is “us.” The object of the preposition (“Him” i.e. Christ) is not acted upon by the verb. God’s electing does not affect the person or work of Christ. Christ is the space in which God’s act of choosing took place, but Christ Himself is not changed or manipulated by the act of choosing. Christ qualifies the choosing, not vice versa.

What does Christ have to do with God’s election of the saints? Or rather, what did Christ have to do with it?

What Leighton Seems to Suggest

Watching Leighton’s rebuttal, I perceive he thinks “in Him” functions adjectivally. So I will do my best to reconstruct the Corporate Election model with this in mind. Leighton’s interpretation would seem to render the phrase as, “who are believing upon Christ.” A paraphrase: “Just as He chose us who are believing upon Christ before the world began.”

This reading identifies who Paul is speaking of but does nothing to change the initial meaning of “He chose us… before the foundation of the world.” God’s election still takes place before creation, still of particular persons, and still independent of faith. If anything is implied in this interpretation, it would be that the only people we may consider elect in the world today are those who are presently believing upon Christ.

One could argue that the persons in view are post-conversion (i.e. Are believing upon Christ) and therefore God’s election is contingent upon faith. God did not choose non-believers, but believers. I perceive two main problems with this.

First, this would require that the particular persons in view are not elected until they place faith in Christ. This does not seem possible because verse 4 explicitly says that God’s electing activity was completed before the world began. While one might argue that God’s election of these saints began, in some manner, before creation, Leighton’s position requires election to be in some way incomplete until a man places faith in Christ. This, again, is not a possibility due to the aorist tense of “chose” (aorist communicates that the action is complete) and the temporal qualification “before the foundation of the world.”

Second, if one is inclined to avoid the previous point, then this would require that the saints did not come into existence until their conversion – that prior to faith in Christ, they were non-existent. The New Testament undoubtedly teaches Christians are new creations after conversion (ex. 2 Co 5:17), but this kind of creative act is one of re-creation. It is a change in the initial person, in which his qualities are tampered with. That type of regenerative work is distinct from saying that the Christian altogether did not exist before conversion – saying that the body/soul/spirit of the pre-conversion man literally ceased to exist and, in his place, a new body/soul/spirit was materialized. I am not suggesting that Leighton believes this, but rather that his interpretation of Ephesians 1:4 grammatically requires it. In short: this particular adjectival reading of “in Him” commits the exegete to a systematic of person-hood and ontology that is, frankly, nonsense.

The only way to read this verse with election contingent upon faith is to let the prepositional phrase function adverbially, describing the way in which God chose the saints. I want to engage the best possible argument for Corporate Election, so I will evaluate the adverbial construction.

Excursus: Interpreting Equivalent Uses of “in Him” in vv.3-14

The structure of verses 3-14 places verses 4-14 under verse 3. Verse 3 is the main point Paul makes, and the following 11 verses explain in detail the contents of verse 3. “Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ” (v.3). What are these spiritual blessings in the heavenly places? What does it mean to be blessed in Christ with these things? Verses 4-14 explain.

This means, as a general rule, every contextually equivalent use of “in Him” found in verses 4-14 must be consistent with Paul’s use of “in Christ” in verse 3. So if we take into consideration the common possible meanings of all contextually equivalent uses of “in Him” in verses 4-14, we then have a semantic range for any of these such uses in the passage. I’m arguing that this provides us with strong evidence that “in Him” is functioning adverbially.

Corporate Election

Corporate Election is a possible conclusion from Ephesians 1:4 if “in Him” functions as a Dative of Means (perhaps a Dative of Cause). This instrumental dative would render the phrase to mean “by” or “by means of.” Christ, then, would be the means by which a saint is chosen. Christ is the elect One before the foundation of the world, through Whom certain persons – over time – become elect. The election is actualized when faith is placed in Christ, because at that point the man is included into Christ and becomes a member of the elect body.

I acknowledge this makes philosophical sense. I am not accusing the Corporate Election model of inconsistency at this level. The question, however, is one of exegetical integrity – the theory might be coherent but does it actually follow from the text?

It most probably does not follow, upon the basis that “in Him” should not be considered a Dative of Means. First, the preposition en is more commonly (but not exclusively) associated with a Dative of Sphere or Reference rather than Means. Second, Paul’s use of en is differentiated from His reference to “means” in verses 4-6.

  • Verse 4: He chose us in Him
  • Verse 5: He predestined us to adoption as sons through Jesus Christ
  • Verse 6: Which He freely bestowed on us in the Beloved

In verse 5, Christ is the means (“through”)  by which one is adopted as a son (Bratcher and Nida, Translator’s Handbook on Paul’s Letter to the Ephesians, 14). Thus, Christ as a Means is distinguished by Paul from whatever Christ is in verse 4 and 6 (whether dia modifies “predestined” or “adoption” does not affect my point). Saints are adopted dia (through) Christ (v.5) and chosen en (in) Christ (v.4).

Unconditional Election

The two main options seem to be the Dative of Sphere or Dative of Reference. It can be tricky to differentiate between the two – immediate and broad context must be utilized (Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond Basics, 145).

If “in Him” only functions in the broader spherical sense, we can paraphrase Ephesians 1:4, “just as God chose, in the context of Christ, the saints before He created the world.” The realm in which God chose is Christ. This sphere is abstract.

If “in Him” functions more specifically in a referential sense, we can paraphrase Ephesians 1:4, “just as God chose, in reference to Christ, the saints before He created the world.” God’s electing was done with Christ in mind. God did not make an arbitrary choice.

Both ways of understanding “in Him” make theological sense. Grammatically, a syntactical decision will have to be made in light of Paul’s immediate word-choices and broader intention in Ephesians.

I am inclined towards the more general Dative of Sphere, in light of the multiple usage of “in Him” in the passage. In equivalent usage later on (ex. v.7), Paul seems to utilize “in Him” in a non-referential way, though in the same manner as verse 4. This compels me to say that “in Him” in verse 4 is not a Dative of Reference.

Probably a Dative of Sphere, “in Him” communicates that God’s pre-creation choice of Christians was made in the context of Jesus Christ. (note: if “in Him” is a Dative of Reference, it still communicates the doctrine of Unconditional Election; see Salmond, “The Epistle to the Ephesians” in The Expositor’s Greek Testament Vol. 3, 248.) God took into consideration the Messiah when He selected the saints. This begins the Christo-centric theme of verses 4-14. In light of these exegetical comments, I would like to ask some simple questions about Ephesians 1:4.

Q. Who is acting? A. God.
Q. What is God doing? A. Choosing.
Q. When did God choose, and is the choosing finished? A. Before creation, and yes.
Q. What did God choose? A. He chose the saints – so, “whom” is more correct.
Q. Was God’s choice arbitrary? A. No.
Q. Then for what reason did He choose? A. There are two types of reasons: a contextual and a teleological.
Q. What was the contextual reason? A. The person and work of Christ.
Q. What was the teleological reason? A. To make those selected persons into Christ’s image.


In light of the person and work of Christ, God selected – before He created anything – certain sinners out for the purpose of redeeming them from their wickedness.

That is my exegetical conclusion from Ephesians 1:4. This Calvinistic doctrine of Unconditional Election, I submit, is the meaning of Ephesians 1:4. For a detailed, to-the-point explanation of this doctrine, see this article.

It is apparent, from his response to my article, that Leighton’s interpretation of Ephesians 1:4 cannot withstand serious investigation. Moreover, I submit that the Traditionalist (Provisionalist) interpretation of Ephesians 1:4 is grammatically improbable and philosophically indefensible. It makes a mess of Paul’s word choices and commits the reader to theological nonsense.

Within the next week, I will publish a response to Leighton’s rebuttal on Romans 9:6b. I hope this follow-up has been helpful and I pray to God that, despite the depravity that yet resides in my flesh, my exegesis has been honest and correct.

Grace and Peace

A Dichotomy of Golgotha

We may evaluate the cross dichotomously. First, consider the judicial experience of Christ – what occurred legally on the cross. Second, consider the substantive experience of Christ – what occurred ontologically on the cross. These two categories are also in temporal order.


Declared a Sinner

On the cross, Christ was declared by God to be a sinner. The courtroom of Heaven found Christ guilty of sin and God the Judge said, “This man is a transgressor of my law – he is utterly guilty.” In being declared a sinner, Christ did not yet suffer anything. This declaration was entirely legal, dealing only with Christ’s position and relation to God.

First, Scripture reveals this in Leviticus, where Christ’s death was prefigured by the sacrifices of the Old Covenant (Hebrews 10:1-10). Normatively, an animal sacrifice would include the laying-on-of-hands by either the priest or Israelite who provided the sacrifice. For example: “Then Aaron shall lay both of his hands on the head of the live goat, and confess over it all the iniquities of the sons of Israel and all their transgressions in regard to all their sins” (Leviticus 16:21). The ritual was symbolic of a legal contraction that took place in that moment. The animal was receiving credit for the sins of a certain Israelite(s). The animal was then guilty.

Hebrews 10 says plainly that these rituals were symbolic and non-substantive – meaning that no Israelite was actually forgiven through the sacrifice of an animal. Instead, as mentioned above, these sacrifices pointed forward to the death of Christ. The Levitical sacrificial system implied that Christ, as the True and Greater Lamb, would in His death be declared a transgressor of God’s law. This correlation is strengthened by Biblical references to Christ as Lamb (Isaiah 53:7, John 1:29, 1 Peter 1:18, Revelation 4:4-8, 6:16, 12:11, 17:14, 21:27, 22:3).

Second, Scripture reveals this in the absence of imputed sin to certain people. Abraham, after placing His faith in God, was not considered by God to be guilty of iniquity: “Then he believed in the Lord; and He reckoned it to him as righteousness” (Genesis 15:6; cf. Romans 4:1-25). “Impute” is a legal term meaning “to reckon; to account.” If Abraham disobeyed God, how is it that God would not call him guilty of disobedience?

The Psalmist continues this theme: “How blessed is he whose transgression is forgiven, whose sin is covered! How blessed is the man to whom the Lord does not impute iniquity, and in whose spirit there is no deceit!” (Psalm 32:1-2). Would it not be unjust for God to cover over evil, to not impute iniquity? “If You, Lord, should mark iniquities, O Lord, who could stand? But there is forgiveness with You, that You may be feared” (Psalm 130:3-4). Would it not be unjust for God to fail in keeping a record of a man’s iniquities?

This dilemma is found throughout the Bible. How can God be just and yet merciful? How can God forgive sin, yet still punish sin? The answer is found in Christ: that God as Judge would pronounce Christ guilty of sins which He elsewhere passed over. Sins left un-imputed to some were imputed to Christ. This solves the dilemma of God as merciful judge.

Third, Scripture reveals this pointedly in several individual texts. Isaiah wrote, “The Lord has caused the iniquity of us all to fall on Him” (Isaiah 53:6b). The evil things that God’s people do fall upon Christ. Because sin is not a physical entity, we understand this language to be somewhat poetic. What does it mean for iniquity/sin to fall upon Christ? In context (vv.4-6), it results in him being stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted (v.4b). If Christ received a sinner’s wage from a just God, it is only appropriate that we estimate a judicial sentence of equivalent character – namely, he was pronounced guilty of sin in the courtroom of Heaven.

Paul wrote, “For what the Law could not do, weak as it was through the flesh, God did: sending His own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and as an offering for sin, He condemned sin in the flesh” (Romans 8:3). God commissioned Christ to be 1) incarnate, 2) an offering for sin. Christ as a man dying as an offering for sin had this effect: the condemnation of sin in the flesh. A true son of Adam – a human – truly suffered for sin, being truly condemned under the Law. Christ, then, was pronounced guilty by God.

Again from Paul: “He made Him who knew no sin to be sin on our behalf, so that we might become the righteousness of God in Him” (2 Corinthians 5:21). Here we again find poetic language in reference to what occurred on the cross. A literal reading of this text would render Christ as sin and the church as righteousness – but because sin and righteousness are non-physical entities, we understand that Paul is pointing us to something different.

Christ never sinned (Hebrews 4:15) nor became anything other than the spotless Lamb of God (13:8). The only sense in which Christ became sin – in light of the corpus of Scripture – seems to be in a sense of treatment and not ontological fact. So: Who Christ was did not change, but for some reason He was treated differently on the cross. If God is just, then Christ must have been judicially found guilty prior to such treatment.

Christ redeemed us from the curse of the Law, having become a curse for us – for it is written, ‘Cursed is everyone who hangs on a tree” (Galatians 3:13). This verse works similarly to 2 Corinthians 5:21. Christ becoming a curse is somewhat poetic, meaning that He was accursed. Curses of the Law are reserved for those who transgress the Law (Deuteronomy 27:1-26). If Christ bore such a curse, He must have been judicially reckoned as a Law-breaker.

Seeing such evidences in Scripture, I submit to you that on the cross Christ was truly and fully declared by God to be guilty of unrighteousness. He was blamed for a plethora of transgressions which He had no part in committing.

The pronouncement of “guilty” was pursued by a pronouncement of “condemned.” Being found a transgressor, Christ was sentenced to a transgressor’s end. “For the wages of sin is death” (Romans 6:23a). Christ, though He had not sinned, was blamed for sin by a Heavenly verdict, and so was dealt a Heavenly edict to receive the wages of said sin.


Treated as a Sinner

After God declared Christ a sinner and pronounced the appropriate punishment, He then dealt that punishment out upon Him. God loosed His holy, righteous indignation on Christ as He hung from the wooden beams. This anger was not random or arbitrary: it was provoked by the very sin Christ was blamed for. We may view this treatment from two non-equivocal angles: propitiation and expiation.[1]

First, Christ propitiated the anger God held for the sins which Christ was blamed. “God displayed [Christ] publicly as a propitiation in His blood through faith” (Romans 3:25a). A “propitiation” is “a sacrifice that appeases wrath.” God put Christ on the cross (Acts 2:23) in order to publicly manifest Him as a sacrificial lamb satisfying the Law’s demand for the death of sinners.

Old Covenant offerings, as prescribed by God, were a pleasing aroma to God (ex. Leviticus 1:9). In like manner, Christ’s death was a pleasing aroma to God, in the sense that it appeased His thirst for justice. “And walk in love, just as Christ also loved you and gave Himself up for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God as a fragrant aroma” (Ephesians 5:2).

More than the Roman nails, the Jewish scoffing, the thieves’ taunting, Christ suffered the true wrath of God. Isaiah foretold this: “But the Lord was pleased to crush Him, putting Him to grief” (Isaiah 53:10a). As a grain of wheat rolled between two great millstones, so Christ was crushed. As a small animal toppled by a bursting dam, so Christ was destroyed. As a lamb strapped to the altar and put beneath the edge of a knife, so Christ was killed.

It is important to see the relationship between Christ being “Declared a Sinner” and “Treated as a Sinner.” He was not aimlessly and accidently treated in such a way. He was crushed under God’s wrath because He was declared guilty for sin. For those sins imputed to Christ, He received full compensation.

I do not know what the full, untampered wrath of God felt like upon the cross. I am at a loss for how to describe it, other than to point you towards Scriptural examples. Consider Nahum:

He rebukes the sea and makes it dry; He dries up all the rivers. Bashan and Carmel wither; the blossoms of Lebanon wither. Mountains quake because of Him and the hills dissolve; indeed the earth is upheaved by His presence, the world and all the inhabitants in it. Who can stand before His indignation? Who can endure the burning of His anger? His wrath is poured out like fire and the rocks are broken up by Him. (1:4-6)

Secondly, Revelation:

Then the kings of the earth and the great man and the commanders and the rich and the strong and every slave and free man hid themselves in the caves and among the rocks of the mountains; and they said to the mountains and to the rocks, “Fall on us and hide us from the presence of Him who sits on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb; for the great day of their wrath has come, and who is able to stand?” (6:15-17)

Scripture presents Christ as propitiation with the analogy of a cup of wine. A chalice is used in Scripture to represent God’s anger against the wicked and their deeds. “For a cup is in the hand of the Lord, and the wine foams; it is well mixed, and He pours out of this; surely all the wicked of the earth must drain and drink down its dregs” (Psalm 75:8). “Rouse yourself! Rouse yourself! Arise, O Jerusalem, you who have drunk from the Lord’s hand the cup of His anger; the chalice of reeling you have drained to the dregs” (Isaiah 51:17).[2]

In Gethsemane, Christ thrice prayed, “My Father, if it is possible, let this cup pass from Me; yet not as I will, but as You will” (Matthew 26:36-46). Such language correlates Christ’s suffering on the cross with Biblical expressions of God’s fierce and tangible hatred against sin. Christ, in obedience to the will of His Father (Philippians 2:5-8), willing and freely put Himself beneath the full weight of Heavenly justice, as it poured forth from the battlements of Zion. He truly suffered, truly died, and truly appeased the wrath He received in such manner that it does not persist beyond His blood.

Second, Christ expiated the sins imputed unto Him. Blamed for certain misdeeds, His suffering on the cross erased the record of those misdeeds. In His death, He carried them away as far as the east is from the west (Psalm 103:12). Expiation is accomplished by propitiation – namely, the suffering of Christ “canceled out the certificate of debt consisting of decrees against us… and He has taken it out of the way, having nailed it to the cross” (Colossians 2:14).

Expiation is visualized in Leviticus 16.

Then Aaron shall lay both of his hands on the head of the live goat, and confess over it all the iniquities of the sons of Israel and all their transgressions in regard to all their sins; and he shall lay them on the head of the goat and send it away into the wilderness by the hand of a man who stands in readiness. The goat shall bear on itself all their iniquities to a solitary land; and he shall release the goat in the wilderness.

So Christ was the goat who bore sins to a solitary land, never to be seen again. With sin out of the picture, God may be reconciled to those who committed sin (cf. 2 Corinthians 5:18). John the Baptist saw Christ as the Great Expiator: “The next day he saw Jesus coming to him and said, ‘Behold, the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world!’” (John 1:29).

Concluding Remarks

Leviticus 16 actually references two goats. One was a scapegoat, used to expiate sins (vv.20-22). The other was for a sin offering (vv.15-19). The offering-goat was slaughtered on the altar; the scapegoat was loosed into the wilderness. In this dual ritual we see a rough silhouette of what occurred in Christ’s death. He was blamed for sins and thus condemned to a sinner’s ruin. He thus suffered under the knife of God’s justice and in doing so erased forever the sins for which He suffered.


[1] Some theologians will define propitiation and expiation differently than I do. The specific terms used is irrelevant in comparison to the particular points of doctrine exposited.

[2] See also Job 21:20, Psalm 11:6, 60:3, 63:6, Jeremiah 25:15, 49:12, Revelation 14:10, 16:19.

A Poem: “Give Thanks to God, You Mortal Man”


Oh, how the grace of God attends the work of every man
     His rain to fields
     All fruit it yields
And revenue therein

Oh, how the love of God attends the air we ever breathe
     He reckons not
     A foolish plot
To call us patiently

Oh, how the strength of God attends the birth of ev’ry saint
     From death to life
     Eternal sight
Of Christ for sure awaits

Oh, how the wrath of God attends the callous heart that strays
     Take heed, my friend
     For willful sin
May prove you void of grace

Oh, how the joy of God attends the plan He bears in time
     What He creates
     He orchestrates
That He be glorified


Give thanks to God, you mortal man
The life you love is from His hand!
     Dare not to sleep in pride
     Consider well your lot
That though His wrath is justified
On Christ it has been wrought!

A Working Confession of Unconditional Election

Below I have provided my working confession of the soteriological doctrine Unconditional Election. This is a working confession because it still needs serious critical review. Therefore, your input would prove most valuable to me in crafting my understanding of what Scripture teaches. Please feel free to comment below or message me on social media with affirmations and critiques.

A Confession of Unconditional Election

1. Before the world was made, God chose specific sinners to love in a special way:

1.1. according to His sovereign and free will, the right He has as Creator and King of the universe, with no consideration to the conditions of those specific sinners except their great need and therefore in sole respect to the greatness of His mercy in the covenant of redemption;
1.2. to the end that these specific sinners would be conformed into the likeness of His Son, washed of all sinful stain and purged of every vice, saved to sin no more in holiness and blamelessness, brought into an eternal fellowship of joyfully glorifying God;
1.3. by the means of saving them from the consequences of their rebellion through the justification secured in the substitutionary death of His Son upon the cross and the resurrection sealed by the effectual working of His Spirit in time, such that the penalty and power of sin would be laid waste, such that the promise of future glory with Him made sure and evident in the genuine faith wrought in their spiritual resurrection under the covenant of grace;
1.4. with in mind Christ’s merit to be imputed to these specific sinners, won by His active and passive obedience on the earth and secured in His substitutionary death on the cross;
1.5. with implication that those sinners whom He did not choose would continue in their hostility and rebellion, eventually to fall into eternity with no grounds for justification and no delight in His glory, when He then in righteousness should pronounce upon them and subject them to an everlasting damnation for their sin;
1.6. for the purpose of delighting in Himself through the full demonstration of His attributes;

and to Him be the glory forever and ever, amen.

2. Such ends as God chose these specific sinners unto shall in no way be hindered:

2.1. for every means necessary therein He ordained and ensures in the efficacy of His will, that sovereign and omnipotent purpose which alone governs the universe in time to consummate all things for the ultimate benefit of those specific sinners, to the effect that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor things present, nor things to come, nor powers, nor height, nor depth, nor any other created thing, is able to separate these specific sinners from His love;
2.2. to the effect that the sum numeric value of God’s elect persons is never subtracted from or increased, nor are the particular individuals comprising the whole ever so much as shaken from their place among the elect;
2.3. meaning that all creatures and time itself are forbidden witness to a beginning or end to God’s love for these elect persons, His will to redeem them whelming pre creatio ex nihilo and flowing immutably through eternity;
2.4. to such implication that the sufferings of our brethren in Africa and Asia at the hands of ISIS have no effect on their security in Christ, therein such incredible faith they exhibit in the face of bullets, fires, swords, and torture manifests God’s eternal decision to love them, whereas we weep with them in longing for the redemption of our bodies;

and to Him be the glory forever and ever, amen.

3. God follows that eternal selection of specific sinners with the tangible, specific fulfillment of that purpose in the redemption of each person selected.

3.1. Regeneration occurs when God’s eternal purpose for the redemption of a specific sinner intersects with that person in time – a Divine, monergistic work in which God gives that individual genuine and lasting affections for Christ via the creation of a new heart, therein this sinner’s resurrection has now begun spiritually.
3.2. Repentance and Faith are the simple fruits of regeneration – faith alone is the instrument of justification, repentance alone is the vindication of faith.
3.3. Glorification will be the monergistic act of God whereby each elect individual is brought to a state of sinless perfection in the likeness of Christ, the end unto which they were foreknown – therein the ontological divide between Creator and creature is not bridged.

and to Him be the glory forever and ever, amen.

4. Such deplorable implications deduced from this doctrine include:

4.1. the notion that He has no kind of love for those sinners whom He did not choose to save, whereby in no way He takes displeasure in their rejection of or death apart from Him;
4.2. the notion that He requires no labor from mankind, whereby His ordination did not include human labor as a means unto such ends He desires;
4.3. the notion that His church has no reason to evangelize, whereby His sovereign calling advances apart from the preaching of the gospel;
4.4. the notion that such a doctrine has no practical implications for His church, whereby only in academia and philosophic contexts may it be helpfully considered;
4.5. the notion that His decision to love those sinners was arbitrary, whereby no reason whatsoever compelled Him to act as He did;

and these deplorable implications are to be firmly rejected and refuted, having no ground in Sacred Scripture, whereas that congregation which swiftly refuses them is blessed.


Systematic Contemplations on Paul’s Greeting to Thessalonica

It is an elementary error to squeeze texts so tightly that one word of Scripture may yield 2000 words of exposition. I have read that one preacher in the 19th century preached hundreds of sermons on John 3:16. Such treatment of the text is irresponsible. A passage teaches something and the exegete’s role is to communicate this thing and move on, having demonstrated through grammatical analysis why his conclusion is favorable.

That said, I claim from the outset that this article is mainly a practice in systematics. I do not claim that 1 Thessalonians 1:1 communicates all that I communicate below. I have taken Paul’s greeting seriously as Divinely inspired and therefore believe it to be consistent with the larger corpus of Pauline and Biblical teaching. To those who object, “Paul did not mean to teach with verse 1 all that you communicate here,” I say, “amen.” I say bluntly, again, that this article does not serve to draw up from 1 Thessalonians 1:1 only what is communicated therein, but rather to consider how this simple greeting is consistent with the rest of Divine revelation. Having clarified that my work below is primarily in systematics, any refutation proposing or suggesting otherwise is irrelevant and shall not be seriously considered by the author.

1. A Singular Divide

Θεσσαλονικέων – This word identifies which church Paul is writing to. Paul traversed much ground as a missionary. Before Thessalonica, he ministered in Philippi (Acts 16:11-40) – post-Thessalonica, Berea and Athens (Acts 17:10-34). 

1. “Thessalonica” identifies the locality of this congregation, but fails to communicate their identity. For this, Paul must add “in God.” Ethnic, social, genealogical, etc. distinctions among men are, with Christ’s resurrection, to be considered trivial regarding the kingdom of God. In these latter days, the eternal purpose of God has been revealed (Ephesians 3:4-13): that He divides men once and on the basis of Christ’s merit (Galatians 3:27-29). No condition is considered save the blood of God’s Holy One (Luke 4:34) upon the doorframe of one’s soul (Exodus 12:1-13, 21-23; 1 Peter 1:17-19). Even the Jewish/Gentile divide is proven a false means of identifying God’s kingdom. There are those chosen, purchased, sealed by God and there are those who are not. God divides only once: the receptive from rejecting (John 1:9-13) – the narrow from wide (Matthew 7:13-14) – the sheep from goats (Matthew 25:31-33) – the called from uncalled (1 Corinthians 1:21-24) – the honorable from common (Romans 9:21). 

2. Though this counsel was not manifested with such clarity until these latter days, it is yet present pre-incarnation. To be clear: God has always revealed Himself to be One Who splits humanity on the basis of who they are in reference to Christ (i.e. with no respect to fleshly differentiation). God’s agenda is not determined by what man fancies. Rather, it is determined in reference to Christ. He has installed Christ as preeminent above all things (Col 1:15) and in relation to Him the Divine counel has prescribed and procured its sentiments. God will not bless (2 Corinthians 1:20; Ephesians 1:3-14) or curse (Acts 2:33-35; Philippians 2:9-11) outside of Christ.

All Divine self-revelation is consistent manifestly, but also because God does not lie. Therefore, the N.T. proposition will prove true in the Old Testament – that these pre-Messianic writings reveal God to be no respecter of persons (Acts 10:34-35). The witness of the prophets is consistent with Christ’s (Hebrews 1:1-2). The foundation to which they contributed was the very same as the apostles – with Christ as their cornerstone, perfect harmony exists between their ancient stones and the apostles’ latter day stones (Ephesians 2:19-22). Consider now this theme of God dividing once among the sons of men.

2.1. Enoch is honored exclusively for having walked with God (i.e. material characteristics did not differentiate him from other men; Genesis 5:21-24). The Deluge (Genesis 6:1-9:29) prefigured the consummation of all things in Christ (Ephesians 1:10) by separating men once: the righteous (Noah) from unrighteous (Genesis 6:9-12). Christ (the Ark) alone sanctifies His people from the wrath to come (the flood): there are no further divides among men relevant to how God relates to them. God demonstrated disregard for anthropocentric distinctions with Israel’s Patriarchs, choosing the younger sons of Abraham and Isaac (Romans 9:6-13). Joseph was far from firstborn, and even between his sons Jacob favored the younger (Genesis 48:17-20). Disregard for what man values and regard for what God values is perhaps a theme of holiness itself. Circumcision (Genesis 17:1-8) symbolizes all of this by dividing men once: circumcised from uncircumcised – God’s people from the world. The things considered valuable by men are to be cut away and cast aside, God’s agenda is to be given supreme attention.

2.2. All of this, beloved, only from the first book. Need we continue? God’s supreme delight in the singular divide among men, and persistent disregard for what wicked men esteem worthy of distinguishment, is a Penteteuchial theme, with Moses perhaps as the hallmark case (Exodus 3:1-22) and Leviticus the hallmark piece. The Law divided once: law-keeping from guilty (Deuteronomy 27:1-28:68; cf. Romans 1:18-3:20). 2.3. What of the poetic works? The Psalms and Proverbs work around a theme of dividing men once: righteous from unrighteous. Psalm 1 is the catalyst: “For the Lord knows the way of the righteous, but the wicked will perish” (v.6). The great teacher’s wisdom in sum is to obey God, for He judges by one divide (Ecclesiastes 12:13-14) and takes no bribes (Proverbs 11:1). Beyond these genres, need I provide further evidence?

3. The materialistic bribes of social status, ethnic association, genealogy, monetary affluence, etc. cannot tempt Yahweh’s gavel – nor can Zion’s honey be purchased by these. There is but one Divine consideration when blessings or curses are to be given: has this person the righteousness of Christ? If they are God’s people, righteous in the fruit of His Spirit, then yes, they possess His papers. These fruits, beloved, ripen only by Christ’s goodness. Heaven’s tulips only blossom by Christ’s sweet aroma. The Father, then, only divides by Christ.

Therefore, it is of no eternal or eschatological significance that this church is in Thessalonica. But Oh how brightly they are distinguished by residing in God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ! The contrast is full between inclusion to and exclusion from Christ. Thus we read Θεσσαλονικέων but wait in eager hope for ἐν θεῷ πατρὶ καὶ κυρίῳ Ἰησοῦ Χριστῷ.

2. The Position and Possessions of the Church

Here we have simply stated the church’s position and possessions: where she rests and what she has – the sphere of her existence and the sum of her equipment.

1. She is ἐν θεῷ πατρὶ καὶ κυρίῳ Ἰησοῦ Χριστῷ. 1.1. Her origin, sustenance, and future come from God. He made her, keeps her, will glorify her. By the Father’s (θεῷ πατρὶ) ordination and gracious adoption she exists. She needs no liveliness from men: all that the world can give her is dreariness and sluggishness. She has sufficient vitality from God her Father. 1.2. By Christ’s will (κυρίῳ Ἰησοῦ Χριστῷ) according to the sufficiency of His sacrifice she is ruled. She needs no judgment from men: all that the world can advise her with are fools’ wisdoms. She is sufficiently presided over by Christ her Lord. 1.3. Woe to those men who forget her position in God, who attempt sneaking off with the Father’s handi-work and Christ’s wife.

2. She is greeted by Paul: χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη. First we may ask what grace and peace she could possibly hope for outside of God’s bosom. Second we may notice in 2 Thessalonians 1:1-2 Paul makes plain that the grace and peace he desires for the Thessalonians only comes from God. 2.1. Grace is the ultimate request a sinner can make. It is a grace that the church finds herself with her present position in God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. The Father graciously chose before the foundations of the earth to place her in Christ. The Son graciously died so as to bring her to God the Father. The grace could be said to be the position she is in. So by “charis humin” Paul means, “May God ever keep you as He now holds you in His palm.” 2.2. Peace is the result of the grace. Because of the grace she receives, the church has ample cause to be at peace. Paul could have in mind the peace that arrives in respect to the Divine and the wicked, where the enmity between God and man is dispersed in the Gospel: Christ bore the Father’s righteous indignation and the Spirit resurrects our unrighteously angery hearts. Yet I favor a Romans 8:28-39 interpretation: Gospel grace is the furtile ground from which Gospel peace grows with fruition.

3. Paul greets a specific people with this verse. He is not speaking in abstract language or of a figurative, corporate body with no identity in the realm of individuality. He speaks to a specific local congregation, knowing them all personally and deeply. He sees each face as he opens this letter. The personal nature of this greeting demands that we recognize the singular application of each point made above. 3.1. The individual believer is in God. 3.1.1. The Christian finds all vitality and meaning in God the Father. He elected and adopted him, keeps him and feeds him, and will one day resurrect him. 3.1.2. The Christian takes all prescriptions from Christ the Lord. His Word is most highly authoritative. His will is superlative in the believer’s life. 3.2. The individual believer is blessed by God. 3.2.1. The Christian is given grace upon grace. According to the Father’s will and Christ’s merit, blessings abound. 3.2.2. Therein, what could possibly shake the believer? What reason has the Christian to lose heart or hope? Peace is his, if he would have it.

A Poem: “The Vineyard”

To the Lord’s vineyard
I’ve been granted access
To His sweet grapes that hang from thick vines
Friends bid me onward,
“Better things await us”
Yet the sweet fragrance drew me inside

Here, though a beggar,
I will not go hungry
One needs but take from the branch ripened fruit
This Lord is gen’rous
Abounding in glory,
Who lets hungry men hasten hitherto


In the Lord’s vineyard
There grows ripe a portion
Gated and labeled, “Patience for men”
Here grapes amass for
The wicked’s destruction
Pressed into wine and poured in judgment

Yet in this portion
Is portioned another
Gated and labeled, “Given to Christ
For the salvation
Of whom God the Father
Chose and is keeping safe in the vine”


‘Side the Lord’s vineyard
I saw His great dwelling
Built with grey stone and snug in the dirt
Turrets look eastward
Their archers repelling
Any who dare to destroy the Lord’s work

Terrible veng’ance
Poured out from the granite
Whene’er a thief would enter the yard
Yet have I witnessed
The hands of a bandit
Snatch any grape put under this guard


‘Neath the Lord’s vineyard
A cellar is resting
Filling this day as He has approved
Now and again, I
Glimpse wine He is pressing
And taking within that costliest room

Oh, for the banquet
I’m sure this will open
And what I now ponder, then, fully displayed
Shall be presented
A rich, lasting gladness
And so to that joy I look now by faith


What waits in this wine
To make me so happy
Is what drew me first to enter His field:
The glory of Christ,
That awesome aroma
Wherein the Father was pleased I be sealed

Better one dinner
With wine from His barrel
Than hundreds of meals with wines of the world
Here in the vineyard
No heart is in peril
We all are kept glad by the press of our Lord